REPORT 2020/2021

With the theme of aid in the context of conflict, fragility and the climate emergency, The 2020/2021 Reality of Aid Report aims to contribute to the overall body of work on the subject. The Triple Nexus tackles how humanitarian action, development and peace efforts intersect to improve development interventions, especially in conflict affected and fragile states. The 2019 DAC Recommendation on the Humanitarian-Development-Peace Nexus, the Grand Bargain and the New Way of Working are among those that provide substantial framework at the level of principles, programming and operations – all of which put considerable pressure on donor countries to demonstrably show commitment to practice the Nexus approach in overall development policy and planning.

While the international community recognizes the value of the Triple Nexus approach to achieve the SDGs by 2030, much remains unclear about what the Triple Nexus means and how it can be put into practice, especially at the country level. The Report contributes to this discussion, as authors investigate current ODA trends in donor countries and identify gaps in implementing Triple Nexus projects in areas they are most needed. The Report shows how the role of aid is changing with the escalating impact of the climate emergency and the global pandemic.

The Report aims to answer the following:

How will donors address the widening and persisting state fragility and conflict in the lives of people living in poverty?

What role will a deepening climate emergency play in these responses?

How will current patterns of development cooperation respond to these crises in the face of the global health pandemic?

The 2020/2021 Report sets out a narrative in support of a transformative shift in the international aid system taking stock of persisting global crises and posing the question of whether this moment is an opportunity for donor countries and development actors in general to demonstrate political will in eradicating poverty and reducing inequality in all its forms. The report examines these cross-cutting issues in three major areas of concern: 1) conflict and fragility; 2) the climate emergency; and 3) the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic.



The Reality of Aid Report 2020/2021 was published with the support of:


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The report has 21 contributions comprising 9 OECD country/regional chapters, 9 thematic articles, and a Global Aid Trends chapter including 2 articles on South-South Cooperation. The political overview synthesizes the various themes tackled in this report based on contributions from different authors. Finally, the report sets out four key directions for transformative change in implementing the Triple Nexus approach building on the Reality of Aid’s Ten-Point Action Agenda to Transform Development Cooperation based on the principles of solidarity, human rights, feminist ideals, reducing poverty and tackling inequalities.